International regulation and global governance: the EU influential method in times of normativity change

Paula Wojcikiewicz Almeida, Gabriela Hühne Porto, Juliana Maia F. A. Netto


This article intends to access the role of governance reforms as a response to the challenges raised by the expansion of normative powers in International and European legal orders. Arguably, traditional legal categories have ceased to adequately reflect the actual stage of economic, social and legal cross-border relations within multiples actors and interests. Changes in International and European law-making are indeed noticeable and result in many regulatory challenges derived from the increased participation of non-state actors. These changes produce impact via soft law instruments, such as recommendations, guidelines, non-binding agreements and reports. Particularly, for decision-making processes involving public interest, questions of legitimacy and accountability are frequently raised in the exercise of authority. In spite of the European Union’s particular structure, the challenges concerning the division and allocation of authority at the EU level are common to those reflected at the international level. In the last decades, there has been an “evolution” in the EU Governance, including the development of good and multilevel governance mechanisms. By implementing a deductive method, this article aims to access to what extend the EU institutional response can encourage and inspire the accommodation of the international legal order to the current normativity changes.


International Regulation, Global Governance, Good Governance, Multilevel Governance, Legitimacy, Accountability, European Union, Non-State Actors; Soft Law

Texto completo:

PDF (English)




ALVAREZ, Jose E. The New Treaty Makers. Boston: Boston College International & Comparative Law Review, 2002.

BUCHANAN, Allen; KEOHANE, Robert O. The Legitimacy of Global Governance Institutions Ethics & International Affairs, 2006.

d’ASPREMONT, Jean. Non-State Actors in International Law: Oscillating between Concepts and Dynamics. Routledge, 2011.

D’ASPREMONT, Jean. From a Pluralization of International Norm-making Processes to a Pluralization of the Concept of International Law. In: PAUWELYN, Joost; WESSEL, Ramses A; WOUTERS, Jan. Informal International Lawmaking. Oxford University Press 2012.

DEHOUSSE, Renaud. Misfits: EU Law and the Transformation of European Governance. In: JOERGES, Christian, DEHOUSSE, Renaud. Good Governance in Europe's Integrated Market. Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 227.

HALE, Thomas N. Transparency, Accountability, and Global Governance. Brill, 2008.

JACQUÉ, Jean-Paul. The Principle of Institutional Balance. Common Market Law Review, 2004.

KAUL, Inge; GRUNBERG, Isabelle; STERN, Marc A. Global Public Goods: International Cooperation in the 21th Century. OUP, 1999.

LAFONT, Cristina. Accountability and global governance: challenging the state-centric conception of human rights. Taylor & Francis, 2010.

MENDES, Joanna; VENKZE, Ingo. Allocating Authority: who should do what in European and International Law- Introducing the Idea of Relative Authority. Hart Publishing, 2018.

NAGEL, Thomas. The Problem of Global Justice. Blackwell Publishing, 2004.

PETERSMANN, Ernst-Ulrich. Multilevel Governance of Interdependent Public Goods Theories, Rules and Institutions for the Central Policy Challenge in the 21st Century, Florence: European University Institute, 2012, p. 196.

REUS-SMIT, Christian. International Crises of Legitimacy. International Politics, 2007.

SCHAFFER, Johan Karlsson. Legitimacy, Global Governance and Human Rights Institutions: Inverting the puzzle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

SCHEDLER, Andreas. Conceptualizing Accountability. Lynne Rienner, 1999.

SCHOLTE, Jan Aart. Civil Society and Democratically Accountable Global Governance. Blackwell Publishing, 2004.

VOETEN, Erik. Public Opinion and the Legitimacy of International Courts. Theoretical Inquiries in Law, 2013.

VOS, Ellen. Making Informal International Law Accountable: Lessons from the EU. In: PAUWELYN, Joost; WESSEL, Ramses A; WOUTERS, Jan. Informal International Lawmaking. Oxford University Press 2012.

ZURN, Michael. A Theory of Global Governance: Authority, Legitimacy, and Contestation. Oxford University Press, 2018.

ZYBERI, Gentian. Non-State Actors from the Perspective of the International Law Commission. Routledge, 2011.


ANDERSON, Kenneth. Global Governance: The Problematic Relationship between Global Civil Society and the United Nations. WCL Research Series, 2008.

ARTS, Bas,: Non-state actors in global governance: Three faces of power, Preprints aus der Max-Planck-Projektgruppe Recht der Gemeinschaftsgüter, No. 2003/4, Max-Planck-Projektgruppe Recht der Gemeinschaftsgüter, Bonn, 2003.

ARTS, Bas. Non-State Actors in Global Governance: Three Faces of Power. Max-Planck-Projektgruppe Recht der Gemeinschaftsgüter, 2003.

BORBOSA, Luiza Nogueira; MOSCHEN, Valesca R. B. O direito transnacional (“global law”) e a crise de paradigma do estado-centrismo: é possível conceber uma ordem jurídica transnacional? Revista de Direito Internacional, v. 13, n. 3, 2016.

BÖRZEL, T. A.; HEARD-LAURÉOTE, Karen. Networks in EU Multi-Level Governance: Concepts and Contributions. Journal of Public Policy, Vol. 29, No. 2, Networks in European Union Governance (Aug., 2009), pp. 147.

BRADLEY, Andres; SLOCUM-BRADLEY, Nikki. Is the EU’s Governance ‘Good’? An assessment of EU Governance in its partnership with ACP States. UNU Institute on Comparative Regional Integration Studies Working Papers W-2010/1, 2006.

CAFFAGI, Fabrizio, CARON, David D. “Global Public Goods amidst a Plurality of Legal Orders: A Symposium”. The European Journal of International Law Vol. 23 no. 3, 2012.

CAROLAN, Eoin; CURTIN, Deirdre. In Search of a New Model of Checks and Balances for the EU: Beyond Separation of Powers. In: MENDES, Joanna; VENKZE, Ingo (eds.) Allocating Authority: who should do what in European and International Law. Hart Publishing, 2018.

COHEN, Harlan G,; FOLLESSAL, Andreas; GROSSMAN, Nienke; ULFSTEIN, Geir. Legitimacy and International Courts - A Framework. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

D’ASPREMONT, J. Non-state actors in international law: oscillating between concepts and dynamics. In: D’ASPREMONT, J. (ed.). Participants in the International Legal System. Abingdon: Routledge, 2011.

ESTY, Daniel. Good Governance at the Supranational Scale: Globalizing Administrative Law. New Haven: Yale Law Journal, 2006.

GIERTL, Adam; LAZOECAKOVÁ, Tímea. The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in International Law-making. Czech Yearbook of Public & Private International Law, v.9, 2018.

GRIMHEDEN, Jonas, TOGGENBURG Gabriel N.. The Right to Good Administration in the Multilevel System of the European Union—A “Newish” Right Strengthening the Administrative Culture. In: ZHANG, Wei, LI, Ruoyu; YAN, Zihan. Human Rights and Good Governance, v.1, Koninklijke Brill nv, Leiden, 2016.

HORGA, Joan; FLORIAN, Gyula Laszlo. Multilevel Governance (MLG) And Subsidiary Principle In White Paper Of MLG Of The Committee Of The Regions (COR). Munich: University Library of Munich, MPRA Paper No. 44854, 2011.

KINGSBURY, Benedict; KRISCH. Global Governance and Global Administrative Law in the International Legal Order. The European Journal of International Law, 2006.

KRISCH, Nico; KINGSBURY, Benedict. The Emergence of Global Administrative Law. In: Law and Contemporary Problems, vol. 68, 2005, p. 15-61.

NASSER, Salem H.. Direito Global em Pedaços: Fragmentação, Regimes e Pluralismo. Revista de Direito Internacional, v. 12, n. 2, 2015.

MENDES, Joanna; VENKZE, Ingo. Allocating Authority: who should do what in European and International Law- Introducing the Idea of Relative Authority. In: MENDES, Joanna; VENKZE, Ingo (eds.) Allocating Authority: who should do what in European and International Law. Hart Publishing, 2018.

PANARA, Carlo. Multi-Level Governance as a Constitutional Principle. In: PANARA, Carlo (ed.) The Sub-national Dimension of the EU, Springer International Publishing, 2016.

POSTIGA, Andréa Rocha. A emergência do direito administrativo global como ferramenta de regulação transnacional do investimento estrangeiro direto. Brasília: Revista de Direito Internacional, 2013.

ST. CLAIR, Bradley Kieran. Comitology and the Law: through a glass, darkly. Common Market Law Review,1992.

VON BOGDANDY, Armin; PHILIPP, Dann; GOLDMAN, Matthias. Developing the Publicness of Public International Law: Towards a Legal Framework for Global Governance Activities. German Law Journal, 2009.

WATT, HORATIA MUIR. “Party Autonomy” in international contracts: from the makings of a myth to the requirements of global governance. European Review of Contract Law n. 3, 2010.

WEILER, J.H.H; KOCJAN, M. European Community System: Comitology. Teaching Material for the Jean Monnet Center at NYU School of Law, 2004.

WEISS, Thomas G.; SEYLE, Conor D.; COOLIDGE, Kelsey. The Rise of Non-State Actors in Global Governance Opportunities and Limitations. One Earth Future Foundation Discussion Paper, 2013.

XAVIER JUNIOR, Ely Caetano; BRANDÃO, Clarissa. Desafios Globais Contemporâneos: Cenário de Convergências no Direito Internacional. Revista Direito GV 5(2), 2009.

International Documents:

EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW. Report on the Democratic oversight of the Security Service. Council of Europe, 2007. p. 4.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee, Participation of Non-State Actors in EC Development Policy. Brussels, 07.11.2002, COM (2002). 598.

_________________________. Communication from the Commission to the Council, The European Parliament and the European Economic and Social Committee - Governance and Development. European Union, COM (2003) 615, 2013.

_________________________. European Governance. Brussels, COM (2018) 7703.

_________________________ European Governance. European Union, COM (2001) 428, 2001.

_________________________. Report from the Commission on European Governance. European Union, 2003.

INTERNATIONAL LAW ASSOCIATION. Committee on Non-State Actors Report of the 2016 Johannesburg Conference;

___________________________________ Committee on Non-State Actors Report of the 2012 Sofia Conference.

___________________________________. Committee on Non-State Actors Report of the 2010. Hague Conference.

THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS. Charter for Multilevel governance in Europe. Title 2

_________________________________.. Multilevel Governance. European Union, 2009.

_________________________________ Scoreboard for Monitoring Multilevel Governance (MLG) at the European Union level. European Union, 2011.

UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICE OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER. Good Governance and Human Rights. United Nations, 2008.

UNITED NATIONS. Policy Note Global governance and global rules for development in the post-2015 era. United Nations, 2014. p. 15

________________. What is Good Governance? Available at


ISSN 2236-997X (impresso) - ISSN 2237-1036 (on-line)

Desenvolvido por:

Logomarca da Lepidus Tecnologia