Killing the green goose: legal limits to develop and sell biodiversity goods

José Augusto Fontoura Costa, Liziane Paixão Silva Oliveira

Resumo


Biodiversity and its protection are at the centre of international environmental discussions. The legal regimes set by the Convention of Biological Diversity and the Nagoya Protocol, not yet in force, are aimed to foster the protection of biodiversity through legal distribution of rights and a regime focused on ecosystems, not singular species. However, the tension between economically efficient protection and distributive concerns, as well as a complex structure of entitlements, mitigates the use of market mechanisms to approach a sustainable use of biodiverse resources. This article proposes the evaluation of the conventional dispositions from an economic perspective, as well as the tensions between two predominant legitimating discourses. It concludes that the international legal regime in force is not enough to grant an efficient use of biodiverse resources, as well as an optimal standard of protection, since it limits the state capabilities to lay down more efficient statutes and implement liberal policies.

Palavras-chave


Biodiversity; Convention on Biological Diversity; Nagoya Protocol; genetic resources, biodiverse resources.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referências


BIELSCHOWSKY, Ricardo. Pensamento Econômico Brasileiro – 1930/1964: o ciclo ideológico do desenvolvimento. 3. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Contraponto, 1996.

BIRNIE, Patricia W.; BOYLE, Alan E. International Law and the Environment. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY. Report of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity on the work of its Ninth Meeting. Bonn: UNEP/ CBD/COP/9. 2008

DIAMOND, J. M. “Normal” extinctions of isolated populations. In: NITECKI, M. H. (Ed.). Extinctions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984. p. 191-246. GERMAN ADVISORY COUNCIL ON GLOBAL CHANGE (2001) New Structures for Global Environmental Policy. London: Earthscan. Available in: http://www.wbgu.de/wbgu_jg2000_engl.pdf. Consulted on: 16 July 2008. GLOWKA, Lyle; NORMAND, Valérie. The Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit -sharing: innovations in international environmental law. In: MORGERA, Elisa; BUCK, Matthias; TSIOUMANI, Elsa. The 2010 Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit-sharing in perspective. Netherlands, 2013. p. 33.

GURUSWAMI, Lakshman D. International Environmental Law in a Nutshell. 2. ed. Eagan: Thomson-West, 2003.

HARDIN, Garrett. The tragedy of commons. Science, n. 167. 1967. Available in: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/162/3859/1243.pdf. Consulted on: 16 july 2008..

HELLER, Michael A. The tragedy of the anticommons: property in the transition from marx to markets. Harvard Law Review, n. 111, p. 621-688, 1998.

KISS, Alexandre-Charles. La notion de patrimoine commun de l’humanité. Boston: Brill, 1982. (Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law. The Hague Academy of International Law, v. 175).

PICCIOTTO, Sol; CAMPBELL, David. Whose molecule is it anyway?: private and social perspectives on intellectual property. In: HUDSON, Alistair (Ed.). New perspectives on property law, obligations and restitution. London: Routledge-Cavendish, 2003.

SAFRIN, Sabrina. Hyperownership in a time of biotechnological promise: the international conflict to control the building blocks of life. American Journal of Intrenational Law, n. 98, p. 641-685, 2004.

SCHRJIVER, Nico. Sovereignty over Natural Resources: Balancing Rights and Duties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

UNITED NATIONS. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of their Utilization. Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2002.

WILSON, Edward O. The Future of Life. New York: Knopf, 2002.

WINTER, Gerd. Introduction. In: ______. (Ed.). Multilevel Governance of Global Environmental Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5102/rdi.v13i2.4006

ISSN 2236-997X (impresso) - ISSN 2237-1036 (on-line)

Desenvolvido por:

Logomarca da Lepidus Tecnologia