Looking for a BRICS perspective on international law

Gabriel Webber Ziero

Resumo


The aim of this paper is to analyze whether there is a BRICS perspective on international law and what would be its main features. In the first part, the investigation inquires, based on Nietzsche’s theory of perspectivism, what a perspective is and whether the BRICS fulfils these theoretical thresholds necessary to possess a perspective on international law. After answering positively to this question, the areas of international peace and security, human rights as well as international economic law are scrutinized in order to verify how the BRICS perceives international law. The first two fields were chosen given the fact that they are the fundaments of the international legal system established after 1945, while the latter is related to the area where the BRICS has been focusing its attention since its creation. In a third moment, based on the findings of the previous sections, the structural fundaments of the group’s perspective on international law are identified. Finally, it is possible to conclude that the BRICS perspective on international law is based and shaped by the continuous interactions between the fields of international relations and international law present in the consensus-building process in international organizations as well as by the concept of state sovereignty. These findings allow filling the gap in legal research on the BRICS and better understanding its approach to international law.

Palavras-chave


BRICS; public international law; perspective; international peace and security; human rights; international economic law. (BRICS; direito internacional público; perspectiva; paz e segurança internacional; direitos humanos; direito internacional econômico)

Texto completo:

Sem título PDF

Referências


ABBOT, Kenneth; SINDAL, Duncan. Hard and soft law in international governance. International Organiza¬tion, v. 53, n. 3, p. 421-453, Jun. 2000. 321

BRAGA, Erika. Um panorama sobre as negociações do Pacote de Bali e os seus desdobramentos no âmbito da OMC. Brazilian Journal of International Law. v. 12, n. 2, p. 16-20, dez. 2014.

CAPUCIO, Camilla. WTO and regionalism in the 21st century: strategy to impose normative models? Brazilian Journal of International Law, v. 12, n. 2, p. 337-347, Aug. 2014.

COOPER, Andrew; FAROOQ, Assif. Testing the club dynamics of the BRICS: the new development bank from conception to establishment. International Organi¬zations Research Journal, v. 10, n. 2, p. 32-44, Jun. 2015.

FERDINAND, Peter. Rising powers at the UN: an analysis of the voting behaviour of BRICS in the Ge¬neral Assembly. Third World Quarterly, v. 35, n. 3, p. 376- 391, May 2014.

GROTE, Rainer. Westphalian System. Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Oxford: Oxford University, 2006.

GUGGENHEIM, Paul. Traité de droit international. Genève: Libraire Georg, 1967.

HAUFBAUER, Gary C.; ISAACS, Cathleen. How will TTP and TTIP Change the WTO System? Journal of International Economic Law, v. 18, n. 3, p. 679-696, Aug. 2015.

KEUKELEIRE, Stephan et al. The EU Foreign Policy to¬wards the BRICS and other emerging powers: objectives and strategies. Brussels: European Parliament, Oct. 2009. Available on: . Access: Oct. 16, 2015.

KIRSCH, Philippe; HOLMES, John T. The Rome Con¬ference on an International Criminal Court: The Nego¬tiating Process. The American Journal of International Law, v. 93, n. 1, p. 2-12, Jan. 1999.

KIRTON, John. BRICS evolving institutional identity: explaining the BRICS summit’s solid strengthening suc-cess. International Organizations Research Journal, v. 10, n. 2, p. 9-31, Jun. 2015.

KOSKENNIEMI, Martti; LEINO, Päivi. Fragmenta¬tion of international law? postmodern anxieties. Leiden Journal of International Law, v. 15, n. 3, p. 553-579, Sept. 2002.

KUOVO, Sari; PEARSON, Zoe (Ed.). Feminist perspec¬tives on contemporary international law: between resistance and compliance? Oxford: Hart, 2011.

MERON, Theodor. International law in the age of human rights: general Course on public international law. Lei¬den: Hague Academy of International Law, 2004.

MUTUA, Makau. What it TWAIL? In: ANNUAL ME¬ETING AMERICAN SOCIETY OF INTERNATIO¬NAL LAW, 94., Washington, 2000. Proceedings…Wa¬shington: ASIL, Apr. 2000. p. 31-39.

NEHAMAS, Alexander. Nietzsche: life as literature. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1985.

NIETZSCHE, Friedrich. The will to power. New York: Vintage Books, 1967.

O’NEILL, Jim. Building better global economic BRICs. New York: Goldman, Sach, Nov. 2001. (Global Economics Paper, n. 66). Available on: . Access: Oct. 16, 2015.

PAUWELYN, Joost. Informal international lawma¬king: framing the concept and research questions. In: PAUWELYN, Joost; WESSEL, Ramses; WOUTERS, Jan (Ed.). Informal international lawmaking. Oxford: Ox¬ford University, 2012. p. 13-34.

REIS, Maria E. F. BRICS: genesis and evolution. In: PI¬MENTEL, José Vicente de Sá (Ed.). Brazil, BRICS and the international agenda. Brasília: FUNAG, 2013. p. 47-71.

REWIZORSKI, Marek (Ed.). The European Union and the BRICS: complex relations in the Era of Global Go-vernance. New York: Springer, 2015.

RISSE, Thomas; ROPP, Stephen; SIKKINK, Kathrin. The persistent power of human rights: from commitment to compliance. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2013.

RUSSIA. Presidency. Official Website of Russia’s Presidency in BRICS: BRICS in numbers. 2015. Available on: . Access: Oct. 16, 2015.

SALMON, Trevor. The nature of peace and security. In: MATHER, Alexander; BRYDEN, John (Ed.). Encyclo-pedia of life support systems, regional sustainable development. 322 Paris: UNESCO, 2009. p. 259-276.

SCHERMERS, Henry G.; BLOKKER, Niels M. Inter¬national institutional law. Leiden: M. Nijhoff, 2011.

SCHRIJVER, Nico. The evolution of sustainable development in international law: inception, meaning and status. Lei¬den: M. Nijhoff, 2008.

SCHUTTER, Olivier de. International human rights law: cases, materials and commentary. Cambridge: Cambrid¬ge University, 2010.

SHAW, Malcolm. International law. Cambridge: Cambrid¬ge University, 2008.

TALMON, Stefan. The security council as world legi¬slature. The American Journal of International Law, v. 99, n. 1, p. 175-193, Jan. 2005.

TSINGOU, Eleni. Club governance and the making of global financial rules. Review of International Political Eco¬nomy, v. 22, n. 2, p. 225-256, Mar. 2015.

UNITED NATIONS. General Assembly. Report of the commission of experts of the president of the United Nations General Assembly on reforms of the international monetary and financial system. New York: UN, 21 Sept. 2009. Available on . Access: 17 Oct. 2015.

UNITED NATIONS. General Assembly. Declaration on the establishment of a new international economic order. New York: UN, May 1974. Available in: . Access: Fev. 05, 2016.

UNITED NATIONS. Human Rights Committee, General Com¬ment 24 (52), General comment on issues relating to reservations made upon ratification or accession to the Covenant or the Optional Protocols thereto, or in relation to declarations under article 41 of the Covenant, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.6 (1994). Minneapo¬lis: University of Minnesota, 2004. Available in: . Access: Fev. 05, 2016.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 2nd BRIC summit of heads of state and government: joint statement. Brasília, Apr. 15, 2010. Available on: . Access: Oct. 17, 2015.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. Agreement between the governments of the BRICS states on cooperation in the field of culture. Ufassia, July 9, 2015. Available on: . Access: Oct. 17, 2015.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. Agreement on the New Development Bank. Fortaleza, July 15, 2014. Available on: . Access: Oct. 17, 2015.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. BRICS and Africa: partnership for development, integration and indu¬strialization, eThekwini Declaration. Durban, Mar. 27, 2013. Available on: . Access: Oct. 17, 2015.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. Fourth BRICS summit: Delhi Declaration. New Delhi, Mar. 29, 2012. Available on: . Access: Oct. 17, 2015.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. Joint statement of the BRIC countries’ leaders. Yekaterinburg, June 16, 2009. Available on: . Access: Oct. 17, 2015.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. Memorandum of under¬standing on the creation of the joint BRICS Website. Ufa, July 9, 2015. Available on: Access: Oct. 17, 2015.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. Sanya Declaration. San¬ya, Apr. 14, 2011. Available on: . Access: Oct. 17, 2015.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. The 6th BRICS summit: Fortaleza Declaration. Fortaleza, July 15, 2014. Availa¬ble on: . Access: Oct. 17, 2015.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. VII BRICS summit: 2015 Ufa Declaration. Ufa, July 9, 2015. Available on: . Access: Oct. 17, 2015.

VIRALLY, Michel. La notion de fonction dans la théo¬rie de l’organisation internationale. In: ______. Le droit international en devenir: Essais écrits au fil des ans. Paris: Universitaires de France, 1990. p. 277-300.

WEIL, Prosper. Towards relative normativity in inter¬national law? The American Journal of International Law, v. 77, n. 3, p. 413-442, Jul. 1983.

WTO MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE, 9., 2013, Bali, 2013. Proceedings... Valencia: Instituto de Tecnología y Alimentos Agroquímica, 2014. Available at: Access: 21 Oct. 2015.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5102/rdi.v12i2.3678

ISSN 2236-997X (impresso) - ISSN 2237-1036 (on-line)

Desenvolvido por:

Logomarca da Lepidus Tecnologia